Axe Mansion http://www.axe-effect.co.za Read the lastest articles en http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/661 <![CDATA[AASA: Day 2]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/661 Thu, 05 Dec 2013 00:00:00 +0200 <p dir="ltr"> One small step, one giant leap. Astronauts need to be at their physical peak to &nbsp;prepare them for any task they may be faced with. Our astronauts in the making will be put through extensive physical training. We follow the rigorous physical challenges they go through e.g. Assault course, G-force mission, training.</p> <p dir="ltr"> <img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-34.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 419px;" /><img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-35.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 420px;" /><img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-36.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 420px;" /><img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-37.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 419px;" /><img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-38.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 420px;" /><img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-39.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 396px;" /><img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-40.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 369px;" /></p> View article online]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/660 <![CDATA[AASA: Day 1]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/660 Wed, 04 Dec 2013 00:00:00 +0200 <div> <blockquote type="cite"> It&#39;s not every day an AXE man says &quot;Best Day Ever!!&#39; Today was that day, as Team SA walked in the footsteps of space travel heroes.<br /> <br /> A tour around the Kennedy Space Centre launch pad and shuttle assembly dock set the tone for day, before the team got prepped for the first challenge - the G-Force Experience!&nbsp;<br /> <br /> TeamSA took the 3G+ obstacle in stride, passing with maximum points! An afternoon tour around the Atlantis Space Centre made it very clear to contestants - Space is a frontier reserved for the best of the best. It&#39;s going to be up to TeamSA to show the world that they have what it takes.</blockquote> <blockquote type="cite"> <img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-18.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 637px;" /></blockquote> <blockquote type="cite"> <img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-13.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></blockquote> <blockquote type="cite"> <img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-20.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 357px;" /></blockquote> <blockquote type="cite"> <img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-21.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 357px;" /></blockquote> <blockquote type="cite"> <img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-22.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 357px;" /></blockquote> <blockquote type="cite"> <img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-23.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 357px;" /></blockquote> <blockquote type="cite"> <img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-24.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 785px;" /></blockquote> <blockquote type="cite"> <img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-25.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 1114px;" /></blockquote> </div> View article online]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/659 <![CDATA[Lexus LF-NX Concept]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/659 Wed, 04 Dec 2013 00:00:00 +0200 <p class="FCKEditorParagraph"> <span style="font-size: 12px;"><img alt="" src="/files/AXE_Lexus-LF-NX_Concept_2013_800x600_wallpaper_01.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></span></p> <p class="FCKEditorParagraph"> <span style="font-size: 12px;">With the launch of the first RX in 1998, Lexus pioneered the premium crossover segment, combining, for the first time, all the flexibility, practicality and durability of a Sports Utility Vehicle with the handling, performance, refinement and ride of a premium sedan.</span></p> <p> More compact than the&nbsp;RX, the Lexus LF-NX concept focuses on the growing segment of smaller, more urban-centric mid-sized premium crossovers, attracting a new, more design-oriented generation of discerning Lexus customers.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_Lexus-LF-NX_Concept_2013_800x600_wallpaper_0b.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Exterior Design</strong></p> <p> The Lexus LF-NX concept&#39;s bold, striking and innovative exterior reflects a further evolution of Lexus&#39; L-finesse design language, bringing more distinctive, angular and sculpted styling to the premium mid-sized crossover segment for the first time.</p> <p> The front of the new concept is dominated by an imposing interpretation of the Lexus spindle grille. Both the chrome trim and grille mesh pattern increase in size as the grille widens through the lower bumper area, to accentuate the concept&#39;s wide front track and powerful stance.</p> <p> The upper edges of the grille generate powerful lines which define the bonnet edges, whilst the base is underscored by a chrome-finished undertray which expresses the crossover concept&#39;s off-road credentials.</p> <p> Extremely expressive, signature front lighting features three diamond-shaped LED headlamps and the independent Daytime Running Lights (DRL) first seen on the new&nbsp;IS sedan. The DRLs are underscored by full-length LED strip turn signal lamps.</p> <p> The lower bumper flows away from the spindle grille edges into vertical air intakes, before projecting strongly forward into a unique corner detail. This separates the bumper from the front wing with an aggressive vertical cut detail that narrows to a point beneath the headlamp clusters.</p> <p> Both front and rear wings are formed by a series of muscular, concave and convex curves. And the wheel arches incorporate black painted trim, hinting at the protective finish which typifies an urban crossover.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_Lexus-LF-NX_Concept_2013_800x600_wallpaper_0e.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> The belt line forms a pronounced diamond shape in plan form. This reaches its widest point adjacent to the B pillar before narrowing as it flows astern. Below, the door cills generate a more aggressive, angular interpretation of the rising crease line first seen on the LF-CC concept.</p> <p> Above the belt line, the classic Lexus side glazing profile combines with a steeply raked tailgate and integral spoiler to create the sweeping silhouette of an athletic coupe.</p> <p> The rear of the Lexus LF-NX is dominated by highly articulated lamp clusters which create an instantly identifiable light signature. They extend the full depth of the bumper, creating a sharp, aerodynamic trailing edge detail.</p> <p> The classic Lexus &#39;L&#39; shape of the lamp itself is scored strongly into the rear bodywork, creating an echo of the front spindle grille form.</p> <p> The wide lower bumper has been deliberately detailed without a visible exhaust system, in recognition of the full hybrid powertrain&#39;s environmentally -friendly credentials.</p> <p> The Lexus LF-NX concept is finished in a new Brushed Metal Silver exterior colour which gives the striking impression that the bodyshell has been carved from a single billet of solid metal.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_Lexus-LF-NX_Concept_2013_800x600_wallpaper_1b.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Interior Design</strong></p> <p> In a continuation of the &#39;Human Oriented&#39; L-finesse design concept realised in both the&nbsp;LFA&nbsp;and new IS, the interior mirrors the LF-NX&#39;s highly sculpted, angular exterior styling. It features bold, powerful forms which create a driver-focused cockpit within an ergonomically ideal environment.</p> <p> The centre console extends the full length of the cabin to bisect the rear seats. Its highly three-dimensional framework&#39;s bright, brushed metal finish has also been applied to the driver&#39;s instrument meters, the steering wheel, the seat structure and the overhead console.</p> <p> Reinforcing the Lexus LF-NX concept&#39;s premium SUV credentials, the strength and refinement of this carved metal surfacing is complemented throughout the cabin by black and Sunrise Yellow leather upholstery with contrast stitching, and sophisticated blue instrument and switchgear lighting.</p> <p> Intuitive interaction with the vehicle&#39;s switchgear, instrumentation and Human Machine Interface (HMI) technology is at the heart of Lexus interior design. And the LF-NX cabin features the ideal, upper display zone and lower operation zone dashboard format perfected over successive Lexus generations.</p> <p> The upper display zone features an exclusive driver&#39;s instrument meter design.</p> <p> The lower operation zone allows access to a new generation of touch-sensitive, electrostatic switches and the new Lexus Remote Touch Interface (RTI). This combines a touch tracer display with a new touch pad design and an adjustable arm rest, for comfort and smooth, intuitive ease of use.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_Lexus-LF-NX_Concept_2013_800x600_wallpaper_02.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Powertrain</strong></p> <p> Reinforcing Lexus&#39; commitment to the future of full hybrid drive technology, the LF-NX concept is equipped with a full hybrid powertrain tuned for SUV performance. This highly efficient Lexus Hybrid Drive system targets class-leading CO2 emissions.</p> <p> The full hybrid drive system combines a 2.5 litre, four-cylinder Atkinson cycle petrol engine with a powerful electric motor to drive. At lower speeds, the LF-NX can operate under electric motor power alone.</p> <p> The LF-NX&#39;s highly efficient full hybrid powertrain targets performance on a par with conventionally powered rivals, whilst returning outstanding fuel consumption and class-leading CO2 emissions.</p> <p> [Via <a href="http://www.netcarshow.com/lexus/2013-lf-nx_concept/">netcarshow.com</a>]</p> View article online]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/658 <![CDATA[AASA: Briefing]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/658 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 00:00:00 +0200 <p> The culmination of one of the largest brand campaigns in history took place tonight at the Kennedy Space Centre Rocket Garden, as 105 contestants from 60 countries gathered to hear their final briefing. The AXE Apollo Space Academy&trade; finals are underway.<br /> <br /> Over the next three days, Team SA along with 102 other contestants will battle it out over 8 grueling and extreme challenges to book a spot to Space. Yes, real Space. Accommodated in military style barracks and under constant surveillance by the international panel of judges, each member of Team SA has one goal in mind - show they have what it takes to be a hero.<br /> <br /> Of the 100 billion humans who have ever lived, only 536 have ever been to space. At the end of this week, one South African will be added to that total. It all starts&nbsp;tomorrow! Stay tuned.</p> <p> <span id="docs-internal-guid-5c66f48f-b828-27c2-cb09-aa80c49d946c"><span style="font-size: 16px; font-family: Verdana; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;"><img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-02.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></span></span></p> <p> <span><span style="font-size: 16px; font-family: Verdana; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); background-color: transparent; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;"><img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-08.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 630px;" /></span></span></p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-03.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 840px;" /></p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-06.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-04.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 840px;" /></p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-09.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/SPACE-CAMP-05.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 840px;" /></p> <p> &nbsp;</p> View article online]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/657 <![CDATA[Mandla Maseko]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/657 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 00:00:00 +0200 <p style="text-align: center;"> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE-ASTRONAUT-Q-A-MANDLA-PART-1(1).jpg" style="width: 600px; height: 913px;" /><img alt="" src="/files/AXE-ASTRONAUT-Q-A-MANDLA-PART-2.jpg" style="width: 600px; height: 859px;" /></p> View article online]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/656 <![CDATA[Haroon Osman]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/656 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 00:00:00 +0200 <p style="text-align: center;"> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE-ASTRONAUT-Q-A-HAROON-PART-1(1).jpg" style="width: 600px; height: 833px;" /><img alt="" src="/files/AXE-ASTRONAUT-Q-A-HAROON-PART-2(1).jpg" style="width: 600px; height: 870px;" /></p> View article online]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/655 <![CDATA[Dean Roddan]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/655 Tue, 03 Dec 2013 00:00:00 +0200 <p style="text-align: center;"> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE-ASTRONAUT-Q-A-DEAN-PART-1.jpg" style="width: 600px; height: 899px;" /><img alt="" src="/files/AXE-ASTRONAUT-Q-A-DEAN-PART-2.jpg" style="width: 600px; height: 899px;" /></p> View article online]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/654 <![CDATA[Apollo Astronaut Academy]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/654 Fri, 29 Nov 2013 00:00:00 +0200 <p align="center"> <img alt="" src="/files/IMG_1386.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 784px;" /></p> <p align="center"> <strong>WE&#39;VE ENLISTED 3 HEROIC RECRUITS TO REPRESENT SOUTH AFRICA AT THE AXE APOLLO SPACE ACADEMY<sup>&reg;</sup></strong></p> <p> The phenomenon surrounding AXE Apollo, the largest and most successful campaign in the brand&rsquo;s 30-year history, is coming to its epic conclusion this December at the AXE Apollo Space Academy&reg;<sup>1</sup>(A.A.S.A.). After receiving one million entries from all corners of the world, AXE has selected 3 brave recruits to represent South Africa. These recruits will have the opportunity to embark on a once-in-a-lifetime journey: a trip to space onboard a Space Expedition Corporation (Space XC) shuttle.</p> <p> One hundred plus recruits from more than 60 countries will gather at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, FL to compete for the chance to receive one of 23 coveted tickets to space. There they will push the boundaries of their physical and mental limits by taking part in a series of A.A.S.A. space training missions to experience what life is like as an astronaut &ndash; from floating weightless onboard a Boeing 727, to experiencing pressure four times the force of gravity, to piloting a SIAI Marchetti&nbsp;Air Combat plane.</p> <p> 30 of South Africa&rsquo;s finest competed at South African Space Camp&reg; on the 16 August 2013 where they participated in High G activities to determine their suitability for Space flight.</p> <p> Finalists endured tasks such as the G Force Rotor, a 15 second free fall and sky dive with an expert and exhilarating aerial acrobatics in specially designed stunt planes.</p> <p> Ultimately, 3 finalists were selected to represent South Africa at the AXE Apollo Space Academy&reg;for a place to go to space &hellip; guaranteed!</p> <p> Our 3 SA finalists are Dean Roddan, Mandla Maseko and Haroon Osman.</p> View article online]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/653 <![CDATA[Lee-Ann Roberts]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/653 Fri, 29 Nov 2013 00:00:00 +0200 <p> Lee-Ann Roberts&#39;&nbsp;interest in the industry extends beyond the scope of the average angel in front of the camera. She describes her passion for fashion cinematography as &quot;the last avenue to explore that remains honest and true, there is no retouch button or way of morphing the human body like in still images.&quot; It showcases the beauty of motion&nbsp;in it&#39;s most honest form. There&#39;s a reason she&#39;s&nbsp;is one of South Africa&#39;s top models!</p> <p> <iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="354" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/pNHKGd5tabA" width="630"></iframe></p> View article online]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/652 <![CDATA[BMW I8]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/652 Wed, 27 Nov 2013 00:00:00 +0200 <p> <img alt="" src="/files/BMW-i8_2015_800x600_wallpaper_01.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> BMW i stands for the creation of pure-bred vehicle concepts, sustainability throughout the value chain, complementary mobility services and a fresh understanding of premium defined squarely in terms of sustainability. And now the BMW Group can unveil the BMW i8 - a new, cutting-edge generation of sports car. The second model unveiled by the new BMW i brand combines a plug-in hybrid drive system with a passenger cell made from carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) and an aluminum frame for the combustion engine and electric motor, the battery pack and the suspension. With this revolutionary concept and the emotional appeal of its aerodynamically optimized body design, the 2+2-seater - which was conceived from the outset as a plug-in hybrid - paves the way for an engagingly dynamic and futuristically efficient take on BMW&#39;s hallmark driving pleasure. By cementing the brand&#39;s new premium character, strongly defined by sustainability, in the sports car segment, the new i8 also demonstrates the broad spread and universal appeal of the BMW i philosophy.</p> <p> The research and development activities carried out by the BMW Group since 2007 as part of its project i initiative have laid the groundwork for a visionary car conceived with the impact of environmental, economic and social change around the world very much in mind. Alongside its conceptual and technological development work, the company has also conducted field studies looking at the use of pure-electric vehicles in everyday conditions. More than 1,000 people have taken part in the studies, racking up in excess of 32 million kilometers (20 million miles) at the wheel. The knowledge gained as a result has been channeled into the creation of innovative vehicle concepts and mobility solutions.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_BMW-i8_2015_800x600_wallpaper_0a.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Breaking new ground: premium cars underpinned by sustainability-led concepts arrive in the sports car segment.</strong></p> <p> The development of BMW i cars follows a revolutionary approach, a strategy focusing on the creation of premium cars purpose-designed to be powered by purely electric or plug-in hybrid drive systems. This electric drive technology (packaged under the BMW eDrive banner) is therefore a central component of the vehicle concept - in contrast to the &quot;conversion&quot; model, where vehicles are retrofitted with electric drive systems. Characteristic BMW driving dynamics coupled with emission-free mobility, precise energy flow management, pioneering design, intelligent lightweight construction and production processes that preserve energy and resources come together to mutually complementary effect to form the innovative, sustainability-led premium character of BMW i cars.</p> <p> The BMW i8 was conceived from the ground up as a plug-in hybrid sports car boasting agile performance attributes and extraordinary efficiency. Its LifeDrive architecture - developed specifically for BMW i - offers the ideal platform for a weight-minimizing construction, low center of gravity and even weight distribution. The combustion engine and electric motor, battery pack, power electronics, chassis components, and structural and crash functions are all arranged within the aluminum Drive module, while the central element of the Life module is the i8&#39;s CFRP passenger cell. This structure also allows a considerable degree of design freedom, which has been utilized - within the framework of the design language developed for BMW i - to give the BMW i8 its distinctive appearance.</p> <p> <strong>The perfect balance of performance and fuel consumption: the BMW i8 represents an exciting new landmark in Efficient Dynamics.</strong></p> <p> The BMW i8 offers a revolutionary and future-focused interpretation of BMW&#39;s signature driving pleasure - and in so doing, makes its case as the world&#39;s most progressive model in the sports car segment. The plug-in hybrid drive system developed and manufactured by the BMW Group especially for the BMW i8 represents a new stage of evolution in the Efficient Dynamics development strategy.</p> <p> The BMW Group launched Efficient Dynamics over a decade ago with the aim of significantly enhancing the performance characteristics and efficiency of every new BMW Group model. Efficient Dynamics incorporates both the evolution of existing technology and the use of revolutionary new drive system concepts. For example, efficient vehicle concepts focusing on lightweight design and aerodynamics, dynamic drive systems featuring both BMW TwinPower Turbo technology and BMW eDrive, and intelligent management of energy consumption within the vehicle are applied in various current BMW models. BMW i cars benefit from the introduction of revolutionary new technology which subsequently finds its way into the models produced by the core brands of the BMW Group.</p> <p> As a world-leading supplier of premium cars and, increasingly, also premium services, the BMW Group is playing an active and defining role in the changing face of personal mobility. And awareness of issues such as resource scarcity, climate change and creeping urbanization is also growing among the public. The BMW Group&#39;s commitment to sustainability has long been a key element of its corporate strategy and is one of the fundamental principles enforced throughout the company&#39;s value chain, as independent studies have regularly confirmed. The BMW Group has been named the &quot;world&#39;s most sustainable automobile manufacturer&quot; in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index for eight consecutive years.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_BMW-i8_2015_800x600_wallpaper_0e.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>BMW i8: the trailblazer for a new generation of sports car.</strong></p> <p> The underlying principle of Efficient Dynamics - more driving pleasure, lower fuel consumption - is expressed with particular purity by the BMW i8. With the performance attributes of a pure-bred sports car and the fuel consumption of a small city model, the first BMW plug-in hybrid vehicle hits heights only attainable through the revolutionary BMW i vehicle concept. And that makes the BMW i8 a trailblazer for a new generation of sports cars, defined not only by their performance characteristics but also by intelligent solutions to the challenges personal mobility will encounter over the years ahead.</p> <p> Thanks to its revolutionary vehicle concept and intelligent drive system management, the BMW i8 strikes the optimum balance between dynamic ability and efficiency in a variety of driving situations. The output of the engine and electric motor, the capacity of the high-voltage battery, intelligent energy management and the vehicle&#39;s overall weight are tailored to form a precisely composed package that defines the unique character of the plug-in hybrid sports car. Its all-electric driving range is sufficient to cover most urban driving requirements, and out of town, the BMW i8 offers impressively sporty performance which is also very efficient thanks to the power-boosting support for the gasoline engine from the electric motor.</p> <p> Efficiency and driving dynamics alike are optimized by the broad application of lightweight design - from the CFRP passenger cell to the weight-reduced construction of all other components - and mobility services developed specially for BMW i. The all-encompassing approach of the BMW i brand also includes the extensive use of recycled materials, renewable raw materials and naturally treated materials, alongside extremely resource-efficient production methods. This overall concept makes the BMW i8 the world&#39;s most forward-looking sports car. It brings together thrilling performance and progressive efficiency. In the process it boosts driving pleasure and sustainability awareness in equal measure.</p> <p> <strong>Sustainability: the reference point for the entire development process.</strong></p> <p> As part of the development of BMW i cars, sustainability targets are established and then pursued with the same vigor as cost, weight or quality objectives. This all-embracing approach is reflected both in the selection of materials and in the construction and manufacturing processes, which differ substantially from conventional manufacturing methods in the automotive industry. The low overall weight of the BMW i8 (3,285 lbs/1,490 kilograms) can be credited primarily to a passenger cell made from CFRP. Although it lends a component at least equal rigidity, this extremely lightweight high-tech material is 50 percent lighter than steel and 30 percent lighter than aluminum. The principle of intelligent lightweight design is applied to all the car&#39;s components.</p> <p> The doors are made up of a CFRP inner structure and an aluminum outer skin and weigh 50 percent less than a conventional construction. The intelligent construction of the magnesium instrument panel support brings a weight saving of around 30 percent compared with the BMW 6 Series, for example. In addition, the high structural rigidity of the magnesium support structure gives it a strengthening effect which allows the number of components to be reduced, thereby lowering weight by a further 10 percent. Innovative foam plastic technology used in the air conditioning ducts cuts their weight by 60 percent compared with a conventional solution, while also improving acoustics thanks to its sound-absorbing properties. The fact that the power electronics and electric motor are directly connected reduces the amount of wiring required, while partial use of aluminum wiring enables further weight reductions.</p> <p> The BMW i8 is also the world&#39;s first volume-produced vehicle to be equipped with chemically hardened thin glass. This innovative technology, so far used mainly in smartphone manufacturing, lends the material impressive strength. The partition between the passenger compartment and boot of the BMW i8 consists of two layers of chemically hardened glass, each of which is just 0.7 millimeters thick, with acoustic sheeting sandwiched in between. In addition to excellent acoustic properties, a further advantage of this solution is a weight saving of around 50 percent compared with conventional laminated glass.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_BMW-i8_2015_800x600_wallpaper_1b.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> As well as weight, the potential for preserving resources is a decisive factor in the choice of materials. The majority of the aluminum used in the BMW i8 is either gained through recycling or produced using renewable energy. Added to which, the BMW Group has developed a globally unique recycling concept for CFRP components, body components and segregated production waste recovered from the manufacturing of CFRP components and reusable materials from accident-damaged and end-of-life vehicles which are either fed back into the production process or used for other applications.</p> <p> The BMW Group is the world&#39;s first carmaker to employ an environmentally friendly process for the treatment of leather. The leather for the surfaces of the seats and the instrument panel is tanned using olive leaf extract. This avoids the creation of environmentally damaging production residue as well as giving the leather a particularly high-quality and natural look. The cattle hide comes exclusively from Germany, Austria and Switzerland, and the natural treatment process takes place in Germany. This keeps distances to the BMW i8 production facility at BMW Plant Leipzig pleasingly short.</p> <p> The textile materials used in the interior of the BMW i8 for accent strips on the seats and door trim, the roof liner, the floor mats, the body pillar trim and floor covering are made in an innovative recycling process. The polyester granules that serve as the source material are produced from materials including recyclable PET and are combined with 40 percent virgin wool in a special process to create a high-grade cover fabric. The manufacture of the key for the BMW i8 involves another innovative form of raw material production; its casing is made from a biopolymer based on castor beans. The oil gained from the beans is mixed with 30 percent glass fiber to make an extremely high-quality and robust material.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_BMW-i8_2015_800x600_wallpaper_1f.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Resource-efficient processes from material production to vehicle assembly.</strong></p> <p> The extensive use of CFRP is a central element in the revolutionary vehicle concept underpinning the BMW i8, and the BMW Group is also a leader in this area of the production process. The use of CFRP on the scale required for the BMW i models is without parallel in the automotive industry worldwide. The BMW Group has teamed up with its joint venture partner, the SGL Group, to oversee a factory in the US making carbon fiber. The facility is located in Moses Lake, Washington, and represents an integral link in the value chain for the production of BMW i cars. It secures the BMW Group a supply of the high-quality and sustainably produced basic material required for the manufacture of CFRP components. The carbon fibers produced at Moses Lake are made into lightweight laminates at the Wackersdorf Innovation Park in Germany. These are subsequently turned into CFRP parts and components in the press shops at the BMW plants in Landshut and Leipzig.</p> <p> The energy used to manufacture the carbon fiber at Moses Lake is provided exclusively by locally sourced renewable hydro-electric power, which means it is 100 percent CO2-free. Highly resource-efficient processes have also been put in place for the other stages of production for BMW i brand cars. The result is a reduction of around 50 percent in energy consumption compared with the already highly economical average figures across the BMW Group&#39;s production network and a drop in water consumption of roughly 70 percent. For example, the energy required for production of BMW i cars at the Leipzig plant comes exclusively from wind power - i.e. it is derived entirely from renewable energy sources. This was the first time that wind turbines had been installed at an automotive manufacturing plant in Germany to provide a directly supply of power to its production halls.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_BMW-i8_2015_800x600_wallpaper_09.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Design: Vision becomes a reality</strong></p> <p> With its ultra-dynamic proportions, elegantly sporty lines, low-slung silhouette and innovative design features, the BMW i8 represents a new generation of sports car. Bringing together hallmark features of the BMW brand with the design language developed especially for BMW i creates a progressive aesthetic which faithfully communicates the performance attributes, efficiency and innovative premium character of the plug-in hybrid sports car.</p> <p> The launch of the BMW i8 sees the world&#39;s first sports car to be developed from the ground up under the banner of sustainability complete its journey from vision to reality. Both the exterior and interior of the emotionally-led 2+2 embody a revolutionary, pioneering take on the The Ultimate Driving Machine. Clean, minimalist lines and homogeneous surfaces defined by a small number of precise edges and function-focused details underline the status of the BMW i8 as the most forward-looking car in its segment.</p> <p> As the second series-produced BMW i model on the road, the BMW i8 also reveals the versatility of the design language which is establishing itself as an unmistakable signature of BMW i cars. Its design signals lightness, safety, efficiency and pure driving pleasure - stand-out qualities that the BMW i8 plug-in hybrid sports car shares with the BMW i3, its pure-electric sibling conceived for agile and comfortable urban driving.</p> <p> The key to this versatility is the innovative LifeDrive architecture, which opens up an exceptional degree of freedom for BMW i design. The central element of the Life module is the carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) passenger cell. The Life module is fixed to the aluminum Drive module, which houses all the drive and chassis technology. This distinctive two-way split is reflected on both the outside and the inside of the car by the visible layering and intertwining of different surfaces, with three-dimensional and flowing transitions between the Life module and Drive module accentuating the dynamic appearance of the BMW i8.</p> <p> A length of 4,689 millimeters (184.6 inches) , width of 1,942 millimeters (76.5 inches) and height of 1,293 millimeters (51 inches) give the BMW i8 typical sports car proportions. Its dynamic character is also reflected in its long bonnet, clearly visible aerodynamic aids, stretched roofline, short overhangs and long, 2,800-millimeter (110.2 inches) wheelbase. The pioneering combination of sporting ability and efficiency is translated into the design of the 2+2-seater with intoxicating &eacute;lan - and with the signature BMW i design language to the fore. The car&#39;s wide track: 1,644 millimeters (64.8 inches) at the front axle, 1,715 millimeters (67.5 inches) at the rear, completes the powerful dynamic presence generated by the car&#39;s proportions.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_BMW-i8_2015_800x600_wallpaper_11.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Exterior design: an aesthetic synthesis of dynamic appeal and pioneering technology.</strong></p> <p> The design of the BMW i8 body is as groundbreaking as the plug-in hybrid sports car&#39;s concept as a whole. Hallmark BMW dynamics, lightweight design and efficiency are all expressed in the car&#39;s proportions, lines and surface design. The 2+2-seater is immediately recognizable as a BMW i model and a new-generation sports car.</p> <p> The structure of overlapping and interlocking surfaces - lent additional emphasis by the car&#39;s color concept - also contributes to the unmistakable appearance of the BMW i8. This layering principle allows aerodynamic forms to be wrapped up in a progressively styled package, while powerfully formed wheel arches draw attention to the wide track of the BMW i8. The compact construction distinguishing both the electric motor and combustion engine allows the front and rear sections of the car to be particularly low-slung and thus accentuate the car&#39;s dynamically stretched flanks. The scissor-type doors, which open forward and upwards like wings, add extra intrigue to the sports car design of the BMW i8.</p> <p> A signature feature of the BMW i brand is the &quot;black band&quot;. On the BMW i8, it emerges in a &quot;V&quot; shape from the hood and extends back over the roof into the rear section of the car, where it frames the center section of the rear apron. At the front end, the black band is framed by the body-colored apron and fenders, while at the rear it is overlapped by the &quot;floating&quot; roof pillars, which extend over the rear lights. Another element of the standalone BMW i design language is the &quot;stream flow&quot; contour of the side window. On the BMW i8 the stream flow also determines the path travelled by the air between the falling roofline and the character line rising through the rear section of the car&#39;s flanks towards the rear spoiler lip.</p> <p> The front view of the BMW i8 exudes sporting ability in its purest form. Large front apron air intakes arranged over several levels generate a powerful feeling of depth. The extremely broad BMW kidney grille stretches over to the slim headlights, accentuating the width of the BMW i8 and its road-focused stance. The car&#39;s full-LED headlights adopt the hallmark U-shape of BMW i models. The dipped and high-beam light is emitted by a lens positioned on the far outer edge of the light units. The three-dimensional design of the light sources lend their appearance a sporty character.</p> <p> The low-slung stance of the rear end and its horizontal, width-emphasizing lines also provide a clear showcase for the dynamic potential of the BMW i8. The rear is bordered by the sculpted rear wheel arches. The sloping rear window opens high, allowing easy access to the storage compartment located underneath. The rear lights, reflectors and rear diffuser form a single visual unit that strengthens the car&#39;s already powerful appearance. Like the headlights, the intricately designed rear light clusters also feature the characteristic BMW i U-shaped design. The directional indicators are integrated above the rear lights into the descending roofline. All of the exterior lights on the BMW i8 are LEDs.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_BMW-i8_2015_800x600_wallpaper_12.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Visible efficiency: aerodynamic optimization on a detailed level.</strong></p> <p> The BMW i8 boasts a drag coefficient (Cd) of 0.26 and a fine aerodynamic balance. The low-slung hood, almost totally blanked off kidney grille, Air Curtains in the front apron, sealed underbody, contoured side skirts, &quot;stream flow&quot; lines of the car&#39;s flanks, and the air ducts between the rear lights and roof frame allow the air to be channeled extremely effectively as it hits the car.</p> <p> The large wheels with their bespoke, aerodynamically optimized design also help to quell efficiency-reducing turbulence - and their effect is reinforced by aeroflaps positioned behind the front wheels and ahead of the rear wheels. Precisely defined air flow across all areas of the body provides a balance between air resistance and lift designed to maximize driving dynamics and directional stability.</p> <p> The paintwork adorning the side body panels and front and rear ends of the BMW i8 can be specified in a choice of four colors, three of which have been created exclusively for BMW i. All the paint finishes provide a striking contrast to the black band. And, depending on the color chosen, the accent surfaces on the side skirts, at the rear and on the BMW kidney grille surround come in BMW i Frozen Blue or Frozen Grey.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_BMW-i8_2015_800x600_wallpaper_24.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Interior design: customary BMW driver focus in a progressive ambience defined by dynamics and lightness.</strong></p> <p> Future-focused design also dominates the interior of the BMW i8. The driver orientation typical of BMW cockpit design is complemented by progressive elements which highlight the sports car&#39;s dynamic flair and light weight. The driver, front passenger and rear passengers sit low down - in traditional sports car style - in lightweight seats. The standard leather trim extends beyond the seat surfaces to parts of the center console, instrument panel and interior door panels. The use of leather treated with natural substances, including olive leaf extract as a tanning agent, underlines the sustainable character of the BMW i8 alongside its exclusivity and sporting allure. Exposed CFRP sections of the passenger cell visible around the entry apertures when the doors are opened provide a reminder of the low weight of the BMW i8.</p> <p> The instrument panel of the BMW i8, with its horizontal lines emphasizing the width of the interior and a structure determined by the &quot;layering&quot; principle, creates a light yet powerful impression. The arrangement of the overlapping, three-dimensional segments is complemented by a contrast-rich color scheme. The layering approach also finds its way, through dynamically curving lines, into the design of the center console, which is home to the gearshift lever, the Controller for the iDrive operating system, the start/stop button, the eDrive button and the Driving Experience Control switch. The iDrive system&#39;s Control Display comes in a freestanding 8.8-inch format. A bespoke sports steering wheel with multifunction buttons and the Navigation system are standard in the BMW i8. Also standard is the multifunction instrument display, whose content and presentation formats take their cue from the driving mode selected.</p> <p> Available as alternatives to the standard Mega trim for the BMW i8 interior are the Giga and Tera Worlds. In standard specification, the contrast between black surfaces in the cockpit and light Carum Grey leather surfaces emphasizes the lightness and sustainability of this vehicle concept. The leather surfaces of the door and side trim are complemented by functional textile highlights made from recycled material. The optional Giga equipment World is available in light or dark versions. The naturally treated leather surfaces feature perforated elements and subtle contrast stitching which underline the superior character of the material and workmanship involved. Painted surface elements on the instrument panel, door trim and center console add the finishing touches to the cutting-edge ambience. The likewise optional Tera equipment World brings a pervasive aura of luxury and sustainability to the interior of the BMW i8. Top-quality leather surfaces combine with textile accents and contrast stitching in BMW i Blue. And when it comes to the color scheme, dark Dalbergia Brown and light Carum Grey provide attractive contrasts. The Tera World also brings high-class paintwork to selected instrument panel and door trim surfaces. The accent ring for the leather steering wheel comes in BMW i Blue in the Tera equipment World and in Satin Silver in the other variants.</p> <p> <strong>Powertrain and driving experience: The best of both worlds</strong></p> <p> The BMW i8 embodies a revolutionary, future-focused interpretation of the driving pleasure for which BMW is renowned. It was purpose-designed as a plug-in-hybrid sports car offering agile performance and outstanding efficiency. An exceptionally lightweight and aerodynamically optimized body - including a passenger cell made from carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) - plus advanced BMW eDrive drive system technology, a compact, highly turbocharged 1.5-liter gasoline engine with BMW TwinPower Turbo technology and intelligent energy management all come together to create an overall concept that represents a new landmark in the Efficient Dynamics development strategy. The BMW i8 blends the performance of a top-end sports car with fuel economy and emissions levels below even small urban subcompacts. It is based, moreover, around a vehicle architecture that offers the perfect platform for agile handling, thanks to an ultra-low center of gravity and near perfect 50 : 50 weight distribution.</p> <p> The three-cylinder combustion engine in the BMW i8 develops 170 kW/231 hp and drives the rear wheels, while the 96 kW/131 hp electric motor draws its energy from a lithium-ion battery, which can be charged from a conventional 110 volt power outlet as well as a 220 volt electric vehicle charger, and sends its power to the front axle. This bespoke plug-in hybrid system, developed and produced by the BMW Group, enables a range in everyday driving of up to 35 kilometers (approx. 22 miles) and a top speed of 120 km/h (approx. 75 mph) on electric power alone, coupled with a &quot;glued-to-the-road&quot; all-wheel driving experience headlined by powerful acceleration and a dynamically-biased distribution of power through enthusiastically taken corners. The more powerful of the two power sources drives the rear wheels and uses the electric boost from the hybrid system to deliver hallmark BMW driving pleasure while at the same time offering groundbreaking levels of efficiency. The sprint from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) takes just 4.4 seconds, yet average fuel consumption - as calculated in the EU test cycle for plug-in hybrid vehicles - stands at the equivalent of 94 miles per US gallon from launch.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_BMW-i8_2015_800x600_wallpaper_19.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Maximum driving pleasure and efficiency: BMW TwinPower Turbo engine and electric motor developed by the BMW Group.</strong></p> <p> The plug-in hybrid drive system of the BMW i8, which comprises a BMW TwinPower Turbo engine combined with BMW eDrive technology, offers the best of both worlds: excellent potential for improved efficiency and exciting, sporty driving characteristics. The BMW Group has developed not only the internal combustion engine and electric motor in-house but also the power electronics and the battery. This ensures that all these components offer high product and quality standards, based on the outstanding capabilities of the BMW Group in the field of powertrain research and development.</p> <p> The revolutionary character of the BMW i8 is emphasized by a further innovation: the use of an internal combustion engine which is making its debut in this model. The BMW i8 is the first BMW production model to be powered by a three-cylinder gasoline engine. This highly turbocharged unit is equipped with latest-generation BMW TwinPower Turbo technology. It is exceptionally compact and develops maximum power of 170 kW/231 hp from its 1.5-litre displacement. The resulting specific output of 113 kW/154 hp per liter of displacement is on a par with other high-performance sports car engines and is the highest of any engine produced by the BMW Group.</p> <p> The new three-cylinder engine derives its typical characteristics from BMW&#39;s inline six-cylinder engines, to which it is closely related and which are noted for their eager power delivery, revving ability and refinement. The three-cylinder&#39;s BMW TwinPower Turbo technology comprises a high-performance turbocharging system and direct gasoline injection with high-precision injectors positioned between the valves, along with VALVETRONIC throttle-less load control, which improves efficiency and response thanks to seamlessly variable valve lift control. Like a six-cylinder engine, the three-cylinder unit is free of first and second-order inertial forces. The low roll torque, a typical feature of a three-cylinder design, is further reduced by a balancer shaft, while a multi-stage damper integrated in the automatic transmission ensures very smooth and refined running at low rpm. BMW TwinPower Turbo technology and low internal friction improve both fuel consumption and torque characteristics. Accelerator response is sharp and the three-cylinder unit quickly reaches its maximum torque of 320 Newton meters (236 lb-ft).</p> <p> The car&#39;s second power source is a hybrid synchronous electric motor specially developed and produced by the BMW Group for the BMW i8. The motor develops maximum power of 96 kW/131 hp and produces its maximum torque of around 250 Newton meters (184 lb-ft) from standstill. Power is instantly available -an advantage of electric motors- from 0 rpm and remains available into the higher load ranges. Credit for the linear power delivery, which extends right up to the high end of the rpm range, goes to a special motor design principle exclusive to BMW i. BMW eDrive technology refines and improves on the principle of the permanently excited synchronous motor with a special arrangement and dimensions for the torque-producing components. This results in a self-magnetizing effect normally confined to reluctance motors. This additional excitation ensures that the electromechanical field generated when current is applied remains stable even at high rpm.</p> <p> As well as providing a power boost to assist the gasoline engine during acceleration, the electric motor can also power the vehicle by itself. Top speed is then 120 km/h (approx. 75 mph). The BMW i8 has a maximum driving range in this emission-free, virtually soundless, all-electric mode of up to 35 kilometers (approx. 22 miles). The motor derives its energy from the lithium-ion battery which is centrally mounted underneath the floor of the vehicle. This model-specific version of the high-voltage battery was developed and produced by the BMW Group. It has a liquid cooling system, offers a maximum usable capacity of five kilowatt hours and can be recharged from a conventional 110 volt power outlet, at a BMW i charging station, or at a public EV charging station.</p> <p> The BMW i8&#39;s vehicle concept and powertrain control highlight its progressive, revolutionary character. The BMW i8 always achieves the optimal balance between dynamic performance and efficiency, whatever the driving situation. For example, the battery can also be recharged via the electric motor while decelerating. In addition to this, when power demands allow, the high-voltage battery is recharged by the electric motor. The high-voltage starter-generator, responsible for starting the combustion engine, can also be used as a generator to charge the battery, the necessary power being provided by the BMW TwinPower Turbo engine. These various processes help ensure that the BMW i8 always has sufficient energy on board to power the electric drive system. The all-electric driving range is sufficient to cover most urban driving requirements. Out of town, the BMW i8 delivers impressively sporty performance with extreme efficiency, thanks to the electric motor&#39;s power-boosting support for the gasoline engine. With such versatility, the BMW i8 belongs to a new generation of sports cars which unites exciting performance with cutting-edge efficiency - to enhance both driving pleasure and the sense for sustainability.</p> <p> The rear wheels of the BMW i8 are driven by the gasoline engine via a six-speed automatic transmission, while the front wheels receive their power from the electric motor via a two-stage automatic transmission. Combined maximum output of 266 kW/362 hp and combined peak torque of 570 Newton meters (420 lb-ft) provide all-wheel-drive performance which is as dynamic as it is efficient. The BMW i8&#39;s intelligent powertrain control system ensures perfect coordination of both power sources. The variable power-sharing between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor makes the driver aware of the sporty temperament of the BMW i8 at all times, while at the same time maximizing the energy efficiency of the overall system. Utilizing both power sources enables a 0 - 100 km/h (62 mph) time of 4.4 seconds. The BMW i8 has an electronically controlled top speed of 250 km/h (155 mph), which can be reached and maintained when the vehicle operates solely on the gasoline engine.</p> <p> Variable front-rear power splitting in line with changing driving conditions makes for excitingly dynamic cornering. On entering the corner, the power split is biased towards the rear wheels to improve turning precision. For more vigorous acceleration out of the corner, the powertrain controller returns to the default split as soon as the steering angle becomes smaller again.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_BMW-i8_2015_800x600_wallpaper_18(1).jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Five driving modes allow drivers to adjust efficiency and dynamic performance as desired - at the touch of a button.</strong></p> <p> The BMW i8 offers the driver unusual scope to adjust the drive and suspension settings of the vehicle in order to adapt the driving experience to his or her individual preferences. As well as the electronic gear selector for the automatic transmission, the driver can also use the Driving Experience Control switch - a familiar feature of the latest BMW models - or, exclusively to the BMW i8, the eDrive button. It gives the driver five operating modes to choose from: D for automated gear selection in COMFORT and ECO PRO modes, SPORT mode and eDrive for pure-electric driving - likewise with a choice of COMFORT and ECO PRO mode.</p> <p> The Driving Experience Control switch on the center console gives drivers a choice of two settings. On starting, COMFORT mode is activated, which offers a balance between sporty performance and fuel efficiency, with unrestricted access to all convenience functions. Alternatively, at the touch of a button, ECO PRO mode can be engaged, which, on the BMW i8 as on other models, supports an efficiency-optimized driving style. The powertrain controller coordinates the cooperation between the gasoline engine and the electric motor for minimal fuel consumption. On overrun, the intelligent energy management system automatically decides, in line with the driving situation and vehicle status, whether to recuperate braking energy or to coast with the powertrain disengaged. At the same time, ECO PRO mode also programs electrical convenience functions such as the air conditioning, seat heating and heated mirrors to operate at minimum power consumption - but without compromising safety. The everyday driving range of the BMW i8 on a full fuel tank and with a fully charged battery is over 500 kilometers (310 miles) in COMFORT mode.</p> <p> SPORT mode offers sequential manual gear selection and at the same time switches to very sporty drive and suspension settings. In SPORT mode, the engine and electric motor deliver extra-sharp performance, accelerator response is faster and the power boost from the electric motor is maximized. And to keep the battery topped up, SPORT mode also activates maximum energy recuperation during deceleration and braking. If the battery is being recharged using the car&#39;s kinetic energy, the electric motor&#39;s generator function switches to a more powerful setting. At the same time, gear change times are shortened and an extra-sporty setting is selected for the standard Dynamic Damper Control and the Electric Power Steering.</p> <p> The BMW i8&#39;s ECO PRO mode can also be used during all-electric operation. The vehicle is then powered solely by the electric motor. Only if the battery charge drops below a given level, or under sudden intense throttle application (kickdown), is the internal combustion engine automatically activated.</p> <p> <strong>Sophisticated chassis technology with Dynamic Damper Control.</strong></p> <p> The dynamic chassis and suspension technology of the BMW i8 is based on a double-wishbone front axle and a five-link rear axle, whose aluminum components and geometry are specially configured for intelligent weight savings. The Electric Power Steering offers easy maneuvering in town and typical sports car-style high-speed steering precision, combined with particularly low energy consumption. Also standard is Dynamic Damper Control: the electronically operated dampers change their characteristics according to the selected driving mode to deliver the desired vehicle dynamics.</p> <p> The DSC (Dynamic Stability Control) stability system includes the Anti-lock Braking System (ABS), Cornering Brake Control (CBC), Dynamic Brake Control (DBC), Brake Assist, Brake Standby, Start-Off Assistant, Fading Compensation and the Brake Drying function. The push button-activated Dynamic Traction Control (DTC) system raises the DSC thresholds, allowing some controlled drive wheel slippage for easier start-off on snow or loose ground, or for extra-dynamic cornering.</p> <p> <strong>CFRP wheels reduce weight in critical areas.</strong></p> <p> The chassis components of the BMW i8 are defined by their weight-minimized construction. The car&#39;s standard 20-inch forged aluminum wheels have an aerodynamically optimized, lightweight design. CFRP wheels developed exclusively for the BMW i8 can be specified as an option in markets where regulations allow them. They allow a further reduction in weight in an area of the car which plays a particularly prominent role when it comes to agility. The use of three-piece wheels made from this extremely lightweight and high-strength material directly reduces unsprung masses and produces a weight saving of three kilograms per wheel.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_BMW-i8_2015_800x600_wallpaper_22.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Body and safety: lightweight and maximum protection</strong></p> <p> The BMW i8 has its own version of the LifeDrive architecture developed for BMW i that gives it a unique range of tools for combining intelligent lightweight design and safety - to the highest standard in each case. The horizontally split LifeDrive architecture consists of two separate, independent modules. The combustion engine and electric motor, battery pack, power electronics, chassis components, and structure and crash functions are arranged together in the aluminum Drive module, while the central element of the Life module is the 2+2-seater&#39;s carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) passenger cell. The vehicle structure and materials employed in the i8 represent a pioneering example of automotive construction and reinforce the position of the BMW i8 as the most progressive model in the sports car segment worldwide.</p> <p> CFRP is the lightest available material that can be used in the construction of a car body without compromising on safety. One of the stand-out characteristics of this high-tech material is its hugely impressive torsional rigidity, yet it is also carries 50 percent less weight than steel and is 30 percent lighter than aluminum. The LifeDrive architecture and high proportion of CFRP and aluminum in the car&#39;s construction allow a previously unprecedented dimension in weight optimization. The curb weight of the BMW i8 stands at 1,490 kilograms (3285 lb), and the LifeDrive architecture also has a positive effect on how this weight is distributed. The battery unit is positioned low down in a central position, helping to give the car a low center of gravity and enhance safety accordingly. In fact, the center of gravity of the BMW i8 is less than 18 inches (460 millimeters) from the ground, making it lower than any other current BMW Group model. And this, like the car&#39;s near perfect 50 : 50 weight distribution, ensures excellent handling properties.</p> <p> <strong>CFRP passenger cell: flexible in form, extremely strong in crash tests.</strong></p> <p> The LifeDrive architecture also allows exceptional levels of freedom when it comes to body design. In the case of the BMW i8, the result is an appearance that reflects the car&#39;s sporting characteristics, its innovative premium character and its groundbreaking technology. The impressive structural strength of the CFRP passenger cell allows particularly large door apertures, which in turn ensure comfortable access to the rear seats of the BMW i8. The structure of the distinctive doors, which open forward and upwards like wings, is composed of a CFRP inner structure and an aluminum outer skin. This construction is 50 percent lighter than a conventional equivalent.</p> <p> In its dry, resin-free state CFRP can be worked almost like a textile, and as such allows a high degree of flexibility in how it is shaped. The composite only gains its rigid, final form after the resin injected into the lattice has hardened. This makes it at least as durable as steel, but it is much more lightweight. The high tear resistance along the length of the fiber also allows CFRP components to be given a high-strength design by following their direction of loading. To this end, the fibers are arranged within the component according to their load characteristics. By overlaying the fiber alignment, components can also be strengthened against load in several different directions. In this way, the components can be given a significantly more efficient and effective design than is possible with any other material that is equally durable in all directions - such as metal. This, in turn, allows further reductions in terms of both material use and weight, leading to another new wave of savings potential. The lower accelerated mass in the event of a crash means that energy-absorbing structures can be scaled back, cutting the weight of the vehicle.</p> <p> <strong>LifeDrive architecture - conceived to maximize occupant protection.</strong></p> <p> The development of the LifeDrive architecture and the version of it used for the BMW i8 incorporated the latest knowledge from safety and accident research and the requirements of international crash test procedures. The high-strength passenger compartment teams up with the intelligent distribution of forces within the LifeDrive module to provide the cornerstones for optimum occupant protection. Even after the structurally debilitating offset front crash with an impact speed of 64 km/h (40 mph), the extremely rigid material used for the passenger cell maintains an intact survival space for passengers. The crash-activated aluminum structures at the front and rear end of the Drive module provide additional safety.</p> <p> Impressive rigidity, combined with its ability to absorb an enormous amount of energy, makes CFRP extremely damage-tolerant. Even at high impact speeds it displays barely any deformation. As in a Formula One cockpit, this exceptionally stiff material provides an extremely strong survival space. Less body deformation occurs compared with comparable steel bodies. Furthermore, the doors can be opened without any problem and the interior remains largely free of intrusions.</p> <p> Rescue scenarios were worked through and checked as part of the development process. In standard cutting tests, the process of rescuing occupants from a BMW i8 involved in an accident was, in various scenarios, even more straightforward than that for conventional vehicles. That is because body components made from CFRP are lighter and can be more easily cut than high-strength steels, for example.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_BMW-i8_2015_800x600_wallpaper_25.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>High safety reserves in a side-on impact.</strong></p> <p> The impressive safety characteristics of CFRP also come to the fore in side impact scenarios. Despite the heavy, in some cases concentrated forces, the material barely sustains a dent, and passengers enjoy unbeatable protection. All of which makes CFRP perfectly suited for use in a vehicle&#39;s flanks, where every centimeter of undamaged interior is invaluable. However, there are limits to what CFRP can endure. If the forces applied go beyond the limits of the material&#39;s strength, the composite of fiber breaks up into its individual components in a controlled process.</p> <p> In the Euro NCAP side impact test, in which a pole strikes the side of the vehicle dead center at 32 km/h (20 mph), CFRP again demonstrates its extraordinary energy-absorbing capacity. The Life module absorbs the entire impact with minimal deformation, guaranteeing optimum passenger protection.</p> <p> The occupant protection concept is rounded off by standard safety equipment - including electronically controlled restraint systems - of the same high standard in terms of scope and effectiveness as that featured in vehicles from all the BMW Group&#39;s brands. Front airbags and side airbags integrated into the seat backrests, plus head/curtain airbags for both rows of seats, are all standard, as are three-point inertia-reel seatbelts including belt stoppers, belt tensioners and belt force limiters for all seats.</p> <p> <strong>Optimum protection for the high-voltage battery.</strong></p> <p> Crash-active aluminum structures in the front and rear sections of the vehicle provide an impressive level of safety for the Drive module. In a front or rear-end collision, these absorb a large proportion of the energy generated. The battery, meanwhile, is mounted centrally in the underbody section of the car to give it the best possible degree of protection. Statistically, this is the area that absorbs the least energy in the event of a crash, and the vehicle shows barely any deformation here as a result.</p> <p> The high-voltage system is designed to cope with accidents beyond the legal requirements, with the high-voltage battery including features that ensure its safe reaction even in situations such as this. The latest series of tests conducted by the renowned DEKRA E-Mobility Competence Center were extremely extensive - ranging from how a car might catch fire, how the flames might spread and what would be required to extinguish the fire, to the pollution caused by run-off of the water used for fighting the fire. The experts concluded that electric and hybrid cars with lithium-ion drive-system batteries are just as safe as vehicles with conventional drive systems. To ensure maximum safety in such a crash scenario, the high-voltage battery is disconnected from the high-voltage system and the connected components discharged when the passenger restraint systems are triggered.</p> <p> <strong>Repair costs for the BMW i models are normal for their class.</strong></p> <p> Tests by vehicle insurers and BMW Accident Research show that accidents primarily result in minor damage. In around 90 percent of all recorded accidents involving conventional vehicles, the damage sustained is to the outer skin. The BMW i8 takes account of this and is equipped with thermoplastic body panels.</p> <p> If a section of the external skin needs to be replaced, this can be carried out quickly and economically. Overall, the accident repair costs are at a comparable level to those for conventional BMW models.</p> <p> <strong>&quot;Cold&quot; repair methods for aluminum parts, time-saving repairs for CFRP components.</strong></p> <p> Repairs to the aluminum structure of the Drive module (welded as part of the series production process) are carried out using the &quot;cold&quot; methods of bonding and riveting. These methods have been in use successfully in BMW workshops since 2003.</p> <p> The reparability of the Life module&#39;s CFRP structure was already a priority in the development of the vehicle concept; for example, several repair stages were set out for the side frame. If a damaged side sill needs to be replaced after a side impact, the workshop carries out a visual inspection and damage assessment and then removes only the section in need of repair using a patented milling tool. The required side sill component is manufactured to fit and then installed on the damaged vehicle. The new part is bonded to the separation points using repair elements.</p> <p> Any authorized BMW i dealer can repair the outer skin. However, due to the product-specific features of the LifeDrive module, there will be repair centers in which specialized employees take care of vehicles with damage to the aluminum or CFRP structure.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_BMW-i8_2015_800x600_wallpaper_0d.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Full-LED headlights offer bright, efficient illumination.</strong></p> <p> The slim headlights of the BMW i8 team up with the BMW kidney grille to form a horizontal unit emphasizing the car&#39;s width. The plug-in hybrid sports car is fitted with powerful and energy-efficient full-LED headlights. In their lower section, the light sources are framed by a U-shaped bar into which are integrated the daytime driving lights, sidelights and direction indicators. The intricately designed rear light clusters also feature the U-shape typical of BMW i cars. All of the lights on the BMW i8 are LEDs as standard.</p> <p> The BMW i8 is the world&#39;s first series-produced vehicle to be available as an option with innovative laser headlights in markets where the regulations allow (they currently do not comply with US regulations). They generate a pure-white, extremely bright light that is pleasant to the eye. The light is created through the conversion of the beams emitted by tiny laser diodes by means of a fluorescent phosphor material inside the headlight.</p> <p> Laser lighting is monochromatic, which means that the light waves all have the same length. They also have a constant phase difference. As a result, laser lighting can produce a near-parallel beam with impressive luminance, which gives it an intensity a thousand times greater than that of conventional LEDs. The beam can also be adjusted extremely precisely. At the same time, the further optimized inherent efficiency of laser lighting means that laser headlights have less than half the energy consumption of even LED headlights, which are already very efficient. Laser lighting generates approximately 170 lumens (a photometric unit of light output) per watt, whereas LED lighting generates around 100 lumens per watt.</p> <p> <strong>BMW ConnectedDrive and 360&deg; ELECTRIC: Intelligent connectivity.</strong></p> <p> Innovative driver assistance systems and BMW ConnectedDrive mobility services developed specially for BMW i serve to enhance the driving pleasure available on board the BMW i8 and the car&#39;s efficiency in equal measure. Intelligent connectivity optimizes comfort, safety and the use of infotainment features while on the move. It also helps the driver to enjoy the performance attributes of the plug-in hybrid sports car to the full, while at the same time keeping energy consumption - in both gasoline and electric form - as low as possible. BMW ConnectedDrive therefore effectively becomes an extension of the Efficient Dynamics strategy. The variety of tools it offers to further improve the balance between driving pleasure and energy consumption is unique worldwide and makes an additional contribution to the progressive character of the BMW i8.</p> <p> Added to this, an extensive range of products and services from 360&deg; ELECTRIC are available for the BMW i brand&#39;s second series-produced model. The 360&deg; ELECTRIC portfolio focuses on home charging, charging at public charging stations, keeping drivers on the road and integration into innovative mobility concepts. As such it promotes the comfortable, reliable and flexible utilization of electric mobility. This package of features also helps to make maximum use of the efficiency potential inherent in the vehicle concept and drive system technology of the BMW i8. Maximizing the use of the electric motor and feeding renewably generated electricity into the high-voltage battery significantly improves the CO2 rating of the plug-in hybrid sports car.</p> <p> The BMW i8 is equipped as standard with an integrated SIM card which provides the intelligent connectivity required to use the mobility services from BMW ConnectedDrive. It also introduces navigation services specially developed to enhance electric mobility - such as the Range Assistant with dynamic range map - alongside familiar features, including the Concierge Services information facility, the Intelligent Emergency Call function and the Online Entertainment music-on-demand service. Moreover, drivers can use the BMW i Remote app to share information with their car at any time using their smartphone. For example, they can use their phone to control the charging process for the high-voltage battery and, while that is happening, also oversee the advance preparation of the vehicle before a journey.</p> <p> &nbsp;</p> <p> <strong>Proactive drivetrain management ensures maximum efficiency and an optimum electric driving experience.</strong></p> <p> Like the vehicle concept - which offers an optimum platform for the broad-spread application of lightweight construction and optimized aerodynamic properties - and the BMW i8&#39;s drive system technology, intelligent energy management also plays its part in imbuing the car with its outstanding levels of efficiency. This function controls the interplay between the combustion engine and electric motor with the aim of optimizing the balance between driving pleasure and fuel consumption in everyday use. This allows the BMW i8 to combine the performance of a pure-bred sports car with small car-like fuel consumption and emissions. A bespoke display and control concept and the link-up between the driver, car and outside world provided by BMW ConnectedDrive bolster the efficiency-enhancing effect of the energy management system. At the same time, they make the targeted management of energy flows in the BMW i8 something the driver can experience in considerable depth.</p> <p> The specially adapted version of the fully digital instrument display fitted in the BMW i8 shows the car&#39;s speed and driving status information in a format and color selected to suit the driving mode currently engaged. SPORT mode brings traditional circular instruments for speed and rpm readouts. In COMFORT mode a &quot;power meter&quot; display replaces the rev counter to keep the driver up to speed on what the electric motor is up to, while ECO PRO mode adds an efficiency display, which encourages drivers to maximize fuel efficiency through their use of the accelerator.</p> <p> The standard Navigation system links up with a version of the proactive drivetrain management system likewise specially developed for the BMW i8. When the route guidance function is activated, the drivetrain management is configured to ensure the electric motor is employed as extensively as possible and as wisely as possible from an efficiency point of view. The system analyses the route in full and sets up the drivetrain management, including energy recuperation strategy, to run on purely electric power over low-speed sections of the journey in particular. In so doing it ensures, for example, that the battery has sufficient capacity to cover the final stage of a longer journey through a built-up area in all-electric mode.</p> <p> The performance characteristics of the electric motor and the capacity of the high-voltage battery have been set up to allow BMW i8 drivers to meet their urban mobility needs on electric power alone. Special displays in the instrument cluster keep the driver permanently informed of the remaining range (in kilometers) in all-electric driving mode. The map display function of the Navigation system also contains a dynamic range display which uses a spidergram (range map) to show the area the car can cover on electric power alone. The map view also displays the location of public charging stations, allowing drivers to plan their journeys to incorporate a stop-off to charge the high-voltage battery. This means that additional battery capacity is then available for the remainder of the journey, which can either be used to continue the journey emission-free or to maximize the car&#39;s dynamic performance by using the electric motor and combustion engine in tandem.</p> <p> <strong>An all-round solution providing intelligent connectivity: the driver assistance package from BMW ConnectedDrive.</strong></p> <p> As well as the Navigation system, standard specification for the BMW i8 also features a cruise control system with braking function, a rain sensor including automatic headlight activation, and Park Distance Control (PDC) with sensors at the front and rear of the car. The BMW ConnectedDrive driver assistance package available as an option comprises High Beam Assistant, a rear view camera, Surround View, Speed Limit Info including No Passing Info display, and Collision Warning with pedestrian recognition and braking function.</p> <p> The standard full-LED headlights of the BMW i8 also feature daytime running light and cornering light functions, the latter illuminating the section of road the car is turning into. High Beam Assistant also helps to optimize visibility during the hours of darkness by assisting the driver in making maximum possible use of the high-beam headlights. The system uses a camera positioned on the windscreen near the rear-view mirror to detect oncoming traffic and vehicles travelling ahead to ensure the headlights dip in good time.</p> <p> Meanwhile, the BMW i8 adds a rear-view camera and the Surround View system to PDC to ensure safe and comfortable maneuvering. In addition to the rear view camera and the PDC sensors, the Surround View system also uses two cameras in the wing mirrors to go about its work. The data it collects is processed by a central computer which generates an overall view of the car and the area around it. This is then shown in the Control Display from a bird&#39;s-eye perspective. The additional Side View system uses a pair of cameras mounted in the front of the car to ensure the driver is able to spot cross-traffic early - for example, when pulling out from tight gateways.</p> <p> The Speed Limit Info system displays speed and passing restrictions on the car&#39;s current route. It also sources the information it requires from the windshield-mounted camera and checks it against the data from the navigation system. The camera identifies traffic signs at the edge of the road and overhead signs on motorways. Safety in city traffic is further enhanced by Collision Warning with braking function and pedestrian recognition. This system can be used at speeds of up to 60 km/h (37 mph) and initially generates a visual warning in the instrument cluster if there is a danger of collision. If this is not heeded, an urgent warning then prompts the driver to intervene with a flashing version of the symbol and an audible signal. At the same time, the brakes are applied.</p> <p> The BMW i8 also offers the driver the services of the BMW Head-Up Display which projects important driving data onto the windshield. Information including the car&#39;s speed, status alerts from the driver assistance systems, Check Control messages, speed limits and overtaking restrictions can all be displayed in the driver&#39;s direct field of vision.</p> <p> The ConnectedDrive Services opens up an array of internet-based services to the driver. These include access to the BMW Online portal, the Online Entertainment features and the use of apps for further comfort and infotainment functions. The likewise optional Real Time Traffic Information system delivers precise traffic congestion warnings and detour recommendations in real time.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/AXE_BMW-i8_2015_800x600_wallpaper_1a.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>360&deg; ELECTRIC: emission-free driving in unbeatable comfort.</strong></p> <p> The BMW i8 plug-in hybrid sports car View article online]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/651 <![CDATA[Porsche 918 Spyder]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/651 Tue, 19 Nov 2013 00:00:00 +0200 <p class="FCKEditorParagraph"> <span style="font-size: 12px;"><img alt="" src="/files/Porsche-918_Spyder_2015_800x600_AXE_South Africa_01.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></span></p> <p class="FCKEditorParagraph"> <span style="font-size: 12px;">The Porsche 918 Spyder embodies the essence of the Porsche idea, combining pedigree motor racing technology with excellent everyday suitability, and maximum performance with minimum consumption. The d&eacute;but of the 918 Spyder at the IAA 2013 marks the start of a new chapter in the future of the hybrid drive.</span></p> <p> And the technology pioneers are not the only ones who are excited by this flagship project, as the 918 Spyder demonstrates the potential of the hybrid drive to a degree never seen before, achieving a parallel improvement in both fuel efficiency and performance without compromising on either. This is the idea that has made the Porsche 911 the most successful sportscar in the world for the past 50 years. In short, the 918 Spyder contains the genetic blueprint for the Porsche sportscar of the future.</p> <p> The Porsche 918 Spyder has been greatly influenced by its affiliations with motorsport. A number of the developments to the Porsche race car for the 24 Hours of Le Mans 2014 were used in the 918 Spyder - and vice versa. The structural concept, which is based on a rolling chassis (i.e. a chassis without bodywork), is standard for Porsche race cars. The design of the V8 engine is based on that of the Le Mans Prototype 2 (LMP2) race car, the RS Spyder, and the supporting monocoque structures and unit carriers are made from carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP). More importantly, however, the Porsche 918 Spyder is considerably more fuel efficient than any of its competitors. In fact, this plug-in hybrid combines the performance of a race car with an output of over 880 bhp with an estimated NEDC fuel consumption of just three litres per 100 km, which is lower than the majority of today&#39;s compact cars. Drivers can therefore enjoy maximum driving pleasure and minimum fuel consumption.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/Porsche-918_Spyder_2015_800x600_AXE_South Africa_0a.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Hybrid drive enhances dynamic performance</strong></p> <p> The core message surrounding the 918 Spyder is that the Porsche hybrid drive offers uncompromising dynamic performance. The unique all-wheel drive concept with a combined combustion engine and electric motor drive system on the rear axle and a second electric motor on the front axle make this possible. This concept is based on Porsche&#39;s motorsport development work for the successful 911 GT3 R hybrid.</p> <p> The additional, individually controllable front-wheel drive enables new driving strategies to be used for extremely high yet safe speeds through bends in particular. What&#39;s more, the advanced &quot;boost&quot; strategy manages the energy of the electric drive so intelligently that the unrestricted total power of the 918 Spyder can be accessed simply by fully depressing the accelerator pedal for every burst of speed at maximum acceleration. In short, the Porsche 918 Spyder allows even drivers without motorsport training to experience the potential of advanced longitudinal and lateral dynamics.</p> <p> <strong>From comfortable to race-ready: Five modes for three motors</strong></p> <p> The centrepiece of the 918 Spyder concept is the distribution of propulsive power across three power units, all of which are integrated and controlled via an intelligent management system. To benefit as much as possible from the coverage offered by the different systems, the Porsche developers have defined a total of five operating modes, which can be activated via a map switch in the steering wheel, just like in race cars. Using the pre-selected mode, the 918 Spyder applies the most suitable operating and boost strategy without any further intervention from drivers, thus allowing them to concentrate fully on the road.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/Porsche-918_Spyder_2015_800x600_AXE_South Africa_0b.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Quiet and elegant: &quot;E-Power&quot;</strong></p> <p> When the vehicle is started up, &quot;E-Power&quot; mode is selected as the default operating mode, provided that the battery is sufficiently charged. Depending on load, the 918 Spyder can cover between 16 and 32 kilometres on purely electric power. Even in pure electric mode, the Porsche 918 Spyder accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h in under seven seconds and can reach speeds of up to 150 km/h. In this mode, the combustion engine is used only when needed. If the battery charging condition drops below a set minimum level, the vehicle automatically switches to hybrid mode.</p> <p> <strong>Efficient and comfortable: &quot;Hybrid&quot;</strong></p> <p> In &quot;Hybrid&quot; mode, the electric motors and combustion engine work alternately, focusing on achieving maximum efficiency and minimum fuel consumption. The power output of the individual drive components is modified in line with the current driving situation and the required performance level. Hybrid mode is typically used for fuel-efficient driving.</p> <p> <strong>Sporty and dynamic: &quot;Sport Hybrid&quot;</strong></p> <p> If a more dynamic performance is required, the power units in the 918 Spyder switch over to &quot;Sport Hybrid&quot; mode. The combustion engine now operates continuously, representing the main propulsive force. The electric motors are activated to support acceleration through the electric boost function, or at points when the operating point of the combustion engine can be optimised for greater efficiency. This mode focuses on performance and a sporty driving experience at top speeds.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/Porsche-918_Spyder_2015_800x600_AXE_South Africa_0c.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>For fast laps: &quot;Race Hybrid&quot;</strong></p> <p> &quot;Race Hybrid&quot; is the mode for maximum performance combined with an especially sporty driving experience. The combustion engine is chiefly used under high load, and charges the battery whenever the driver does not require maximum power. The electric motors provide additional support in the form of boosting in this mode too. The gearshift programme of the Porsche Doppelkupplung (PDK) is also designed for even sportier driving. The electric motors are used up to the maximum power output limit to deliver the best possible performance for the race track. In this mode, the battery charging condition is not kept constant and instead fluctuates over the entire charge range. In contrast to Sport Hybrid mode, the electric motors run at their maximum power output limit for a short period for enhanced boost performance. This increased output is balanced out by the fact that the combustion engine charges the battery more intensively. The electric power boost is thus always available to the driver even for several very fast laps.</p> <p> <strong>For pole position: &quot;Hot Lap&quot;</strong></p> <p> The &quot;Hot Lap&quot; button in the centre of the map switch releases the 918 Spyder&#39;s final reserves and can only be activated in &quot;Race Hybrid&quot; mode. Similar to a qualification mode, &quot;Race Hybrid&quot; mode pushes the traction battery to its maximum power output limits for a few fast laps. This mode uses all of the available energy in the battery.</p> <p> <strong>A drive that harnesses the power of three separate power units</strong></p> <p> The main drive source is the 4.6-litre, eight-cylinder engine with an output of up to 608 bhp. Based on the power unit of the successful RS Spyder endurance race car, the engine delivers engine speeds of up to 9150 rpm and a power output per litre of approx. 132 bhp/litre - 26 bhp/litre more than that of the&nbsp;Carrera GT, making this the highest specific power of any naturally aspirated Porsche engine.</p> <p> And it is not just the performance of the 918 Spyder engine that stirs up an emotive response: The sound of this vehicle is just as impressive, and can primarily be attributed to the &quot;top pipes&quot; - exhaust tailpipes that terminate directly above the engine in the upper part of the rear end. No other series production vehicle features this solution.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/Porsche-918_Spyder_2015_800x600_AXE_South Africa_0d.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>In parallel in the drivetrain: Hybrid module</strong></p> <p> The V8 engine is coupled to the hybrid module as the Porsche 918 Spyder is designed as a parallel hybrid like Porsche&#39;s current hybrid models. The hybrid module essentially comprises a 115-kW electric motor and a decoupler that serves as the connection with the combustion engine. Because of its parallel hybrid configuration, the 918 Spyder can be powered at the rear axle either individually by the combustion engine or the electric motor, or via both drives together. As is typical for a Porsche super sportscar, the power unit assembly in the 918 Spyder has been placed in front of the rear axle, and it does not have a direct mechanical connection to the front axle. A seven-speed Porsche Doppelkupplung (PDK) transmission handles power transmission to the rear axle.</p> <p> <strong>Independent all-wheel drive: Front axle with electric motor</strong></p> <p> There is another independent electric motor that generates approximately 95 kW of power at the front axle. The front electric drive unit drives the wheels at a fixed gear ratio. A decoupler decouples the electric motor at high speeds to prevent the motor from over-revving. The drive torque is independently controlled for each axle, creating a very responsive all-wheel drive function with significant potential in terms of traction and dynamic performance.</p> <p> <strong>Lithium-ion battery with plug-in charging system</strong></p> <p> The electric energy for the electric motors is stored by a liquid-cooled lithium-ion battery comprising 312 individual cells with an energy content of approximately seven kilowatt hours. The battery in the Porsche 918 Spyder has a performance-oriented design in terms of both power charging and output, enabling it to meet the performance requirements of the electric motor. The power capacity and operating life of the lithium-ion traction battery depend on several factors, including thermal conditions. This is why the 918 Spyder&#39;s battery is liquid cooled by a dedicated cooling circuit. The global warranty period for the traction battery is seven years.</p> <p> Porsche has developed a new system with a plug-in charging interface and improved recuperation potential for charging the battery. For example, on the German 230 Volt mains supply, the traction battery can be charged within four hours by connecting the Porsche Universal Charger (AC) provided in the scope of delivery to a ten-ampere fused power socket. The Porsche Speed Charging Station (DC) is also available as an option, and will fully charge the high-voltage battery in just under 25 minutes.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/Porsche-918_Spyder_2015_800x600_AXE_South Africa_0e.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Chassis with race car genes and rear-axle steering</strong></p> <p> The Porsche 918 Spyder&#39;s multi-link chassis was inspired by motorsport design, and is complemented by additional systems such as the Porsche Active Suspension Management (PASM) adaptive shock-absorber system and rear-axle steering, which is essentially an electro-mechanical adjustment system at each rear wheel. This adjustment is speed-sensitive, providing steering angles of up to three degrees in each direction.</p> <p> The rear axle can therefore be steered in the same direction or in the opposite direction to the front wheels. At low speeds, the system steers the rear wheels in the opposite direction to the front wheels, which has the effect of shortening the wheelbase. This makes cornering even more direct, faster and more precise, and reduces the turning circle. At higher speeds, the system steers the rear wheels in the same direction as the front wheels, which has the effect of lengthening the wheelbase. This significantly increases rear end stability when changing lanes quickly, resulting in exceptionally safe and stable handling.</p> <p> <strong>The tyres of the 918: A special challenge</strong></p> <p> On the one hand, the tyres needed to have optimum grip and razor-sharp handling on all road types. On the other hand, the tyres needed to be durable on the racetrack and have as low a rolling resistance as possible. As a result, the developers of the Michelin Pilot Sport Cup 2 tyres for the Porsche 918 Spyder were faced with a seemingly insurmountable conflict of objectives. However, working closely with Porsche engineers, the tyre experts from Michelin were able to overcome this challenge in impressive fashion: The 918 Spyder is rolling out of production facilities exclusively on specially tuned Michelin Pilot Sport Cup 2 tyres. A total of 550 prototype tyres were produced and tested over the course of the testing period. 400 preproduction prototypes and 200 series test specimens were also produced before Porsche gave the final approval for the Michelin Pilot Sport Cup 2 tyres in size 265/35 ZR 20 for the front axle and 325/30 ZR 21 for the rear axle. The tyres developed specially for the Porsche 918 are also raising the benchmark in the ultra sports tyre segment when it comes to driving on wet surfaces and in terms of aquaplaning safety. The Porsche 918 sees this exclusive partnership between Michelin and Porsche in the development of special tyres for super sportscars entering its second phase. This partnership started more than ten years ago with the Carrera GT.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/Porsche-918_Spyder_2015_800x600_AXE_South Africa_03.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>The Weissach package for an even better performance</strong></p> <p> For customers looking for an even better performance from the 918 Spyder, Porsche also offers the &quot;Weissach&quot; package. Super sportscars modified with this package are also available in special colours and designs inspired by legendary Porsche race cars, making them instantly recognisable. The emphasis on performance is not just visual: Super lightweight magnesium wheels reduce the unsprung weight, decreasing the gross weight by around 35 kg. These lightweight features are decisive when it comes to further enhancing the dynamic performance of the vehicle. Other references to motorsport include six-point seatbelts for the driver and front passenger, an optional film coating instead of a paint finish, plus additional aerodynamic add-on parts in visible carbon fibre.</p> <p> <strong>Porsche Active Aerodynamic (PAA) for different driving modes</strong></p> <p> Porsche Active Aerodynamic (PAA) is a system of adjustable aerodynamic elements that provides a unique and variable aerodynamic response. The system works in three stages, switching automatically between optimum efficiency and maximum downforce, and working in harmony with the operating modes of the hybrid drive.</p> <p> In &quot;Race&quot; mode, the retractable rear wing is set to a steep angle to generate high downforce at the rear axle. The spoiler, which is positioned between the two wing supports at the trailing edge of the airflow, also extends. Two adjustable air flaps are opened in the underbody in front of the front axle, directing some of the air into the diffuser channels of the underbody structure to also produce a &quot;ground effect&quot; at the front axle.</p> <p> In &quot;Sport&quot; mode, the aerodynamics control system reduces the approach angle of the rear wing slightly, enabling a higher top speed. The spoiler remains extended but the aerodynamic flaps in the underbody close, which also reduces aerodynamic drag and increases the potential vehicle speed. In &quot;E&quot; mode, the system focuses solely on low aerodynamic drag; the rear wing and spoiler are retracted and the underbody flaps are closed. Adjustable air intakes under the main headlights round off the adaptive aerodynamics system. When the vehicle is stationary and in &quot;Race&quot; or &quot;Sport&quot; mode, the intakes are opened to enable maximum cooling. In &quot;E-Power&quot; and &quot;Hybrid&quot; mode, the air intakes close as soon as the vehicle is driven off in order to keep aerodynamic drag to a minimum. They are not opened again until the vehicle reaches speeds of approximately 130 km/h or when cooling requirements are higher.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/Porsche-918_Spyder_2015_800x600_AXE_South Africa_07.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Clear organisation in the cockpit</strong></p> <p> The driver is the focus behind all the technology in the future Porsche super sportscar. With this in mind, the engineers have developed a cockpit that is typical of the brand and pioneering in its clarity. The cockpit concept is divided into two basic sections: The first section comprises the controls that are important for driving. These items are grouped around the multi-function steering wheel and combined with driver information displayed on three large round instruments. The second section comprises the infotainment block housed in the elevated centre console, which was originally introduced in the Carrera GT.</p> <p> Systems like climate control, wing adjustment, lighting and the Porsche Communication Management (PCM) system along with the Burmester High-End sound system can be operated intuitively via the multi-touch control functions on the innovative black panel display.</p> <p> <strong>A unique open-roof driving experience: Removable roof panels</strong></p> <p> As a super sportscar designed for everyday use, the Porsche 918 Spyder offers a spectacular top-down driving experience. The two roof panels made from carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) are removable, as is the tradition at Porsche, and can be stored securely in the 100-litre luggage compartment located at the front of the vehicle.</p> <p> <strong>Porsche redefined: A new super sportscar for a new decade</strong></p> <p> The 918 Spyder continues a long tradition of super sportscars at Porsche. Many of these vehicles have set technological benchmarks and have become the ultimate sportscars of their decades: the Carrera GTS, the first Porsche Turbo, the&nbsp;959, the 911 GT1 and the Carrera GT. More so than any of its predecessors, the 918 Spyder is providing the key momentum for developing technologies for future vehicle concepts. The Porsche 918 Spyder features all the components that reflect the Porsche DNA in a format that is more powerful than ever before.</p> <p> [Via <a href="http://www.netcarshow.com/porsche/2015-918_spyder/">NetCarShow.com</a>]</p> View article online]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/650 <![CDATA[Nanuk Quattro Concept]]> http://www.axe-effect.co.za/articles/view/650 Tue, 12 Nov 2013 00:00:00 +0200 <p class="FCKEditorParagraph"> <img alt="" src="/files/Audi-Nanuk_quattro_Concept_2013_800x600_AXE_SA_01.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p class="FCKEditorParagraph"> <span style="font-size: 12px;">Sportiness in a new form - Audi is showing the Audi nanuk quattro concept show car at the 2013 IAA in Frankfurt am Main. Its crossover concept combines the dynamics of a high-performance sports car with Audi&#39;s quattro expertise on the road, on the race track and also off-road. The V10 TDI engine sets benchmarks for power and efficiency.</span></p> <p> Audi developed the Audi nanuk quattro concept show car in collaboration with the designers from Italdesign Giugiaro. The result is a sports car for any stage of life and for any surface - equally at home on the race track, the highway or a winding country road as it is off-road in the sand or in the snow. It&#39;s crossover concept combines the dynamics of a mid-engine sports car with the versatility of a sporty recreational vehicle.</p> <p> The two-seater is powered by a newly developed V10 TDI installed longitudinally in front of the rear axle. The powerful 5.0-liter diesel engine produces over 400 kW (544 hp) and delivers 1,000 Nm (737.56 lb-ft) of torque to the crankshaft from just 1,500 rpm. Its twin-turbo register charging unit is controlled via the Audi valvelift system (AVS). The common rail system operates at an injection pressure of 2,500 bar. A beefed-up seven-speed S tronic located behind the engine transfers the torque to a specially designed quattro drivetrain.</p> <p> The Audi nanuk quattro concept has a curb weight of around 1,900 kilograms (4,188.78 lb). It sprints from 0 to 100 km/h (62.14 mph) in 3.8 seconds, and the top speed is 305 km/h (189.52 mph). The innovative thermal management with its separate cooling loops and the steplessly regulated oil pump contribute to the excellent fuel consumption of just 7.8 liters per 100 kilometers (30.16 US mpg) on average.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/Audi-Nanuk_quattro_Concept_2013_800x600_AXE_SA_03.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> Double wishbones guide the show car&#39;s 22-inch wheels, which are shod with 235/50-series tires up front and 295/45 at the rear. The carbon fiber-ceramic brake discs can withstand high temperatures and are extremely abrasion-resistant.</p> <p> The adaptive air suspension with electronically controlled dampers features the next generation of technology from Audi. The driver can manually adjust the ground clearance of the Audi nanuk quattro concept in three stages: normal, 30 millimeters (1.18 in) lower or 40 millimeters (1.57 in) higher. The system also controls the level of the body itself based on driving speed and the predictive route data supplied by the navigation system. On the highway, for example, the body remains lowered even when the Audi nanuk quattro concept is moving slowly. It is automatically raised when turning onto a gravel road.</p> <p> Another technological highlight of the show car is the integral steering, which resolves the classic conflict between dynamic handling and stability. The system combines the proven Audi dynamic steering at the front axle, which among other things can intervene at the cornering limit for enhanced stability, with supplemental steering for the rear wheels. Separate actuators activate the two active track rods.</p> <p> When the driver steers at low to moderate speeds, the rear wheels turn up to nine degrees in the opposite direction of the front wheels. This shortens the wheelbase virtually by around 100 centimeters (39.37 in), reducing the turning circle to roughly 10 meters (32.81 ft). Handling also becomes more agile. The Audi nanuk quattro concept turns in even more eagerly and is essentially neutral in corners.</p> <p> At higher speeds the system turns the rear wheels by as much as 2.5 degrees in the same direction as the front wheels. This extends the wheelbase virtually by around 140 centimeters (55.12 in) for better stability. On the highway, the show car is firmly seated on the road and masters fast corners and avoidance maneuvers with aplomb.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/Audi-Nanuk_quattro_Concept_2013_800x600_AXE_SA_05.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Precise and uncompromising: Exterior design</strong></p> <p> The Audi nanuk quattro concept has a wheelbase of 2,710 millimeters (106.69 in). It is 4,541 millimeters (178.78 in) long, 1,990 millimeters (78.35 in) wide and 1,337 milli-meters (52.64 in) tall. The load-bearing body structure is a lightweight, aluminum Audi Space Frame (ASF). Components made of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) comprise the outer skin and are finished in Extreme Red.</p> <p> These are exaggerated, uncompromising and angular. The Audi nanuk quattro concept is a dynamic sculpture on large wheels that opens a new chapter in the Audi design language.</p> <p> At the front of the show car is a very flat version of a hexagonal single-frame grille. A narrow aluminum frame encircles its insert.</p> <p> Dynamic daytime running lights accentuate the Audi signature when the car is started and also serve as dynamic turn signals. Particularly distinctive, however, is the switch between the low beams and high beams made possible by the new Audi Matrix LED technology. When driving with the low beams, the show car appears clean and open, but hunkered down and focused when driving with the high beams.</p> <p> The large air inlets up front have been shifted toward the back. Three upright bars structure their interior. The blade, which forms the lower edge of the bumper, includes airflow slits. The four rings are mounted in the single-frame grille.</p> <p> The contours of the fenders dominate when theAudi nanuk quattro concept is viewed from the side. The front contour forms a sharp blister edge, a classic Audi design feature. The rear contour extends like a wave over the wheel. The greenhouse is low, and the C-pillars flow smoothly at a gentle angle to the rear of the car. In the bottom section of the flanks, very wide aprons cap the side sills.</p> <p> The door is sculpted. The upper and lower sections protrude boldly while the center section is slightly recessed. The doors open upward at an angle. Delicate, wing-shaped cameras replace the exterior mirrors. Behind the door opening is a large, vertical sideblade like that on the&nbsp;Audi R8&nbsp;high-performance sports car. It feeds intake air to the V10 TDI engine. A second, smaller blade behind the side window is moveable and facilitates the flow of air through the engine compartment.</p> <p> The interplay between protruding and recessed surfaces continues at the rear of the car. A concave section extending across the entire width integrates the Audi rings, the tail lights and the third brake light, which runs as a flat strip between the lights. The license plate is mounted on another recessed surface in the lower section of the back end. The diffuser houses the two large, round tailpipes of the exhaust system.</p> <p> A large rear window exposes the TDI engine. The entire rear bodywork can be flipped upward in one piece like with a race car for maintenance work. The occupants&#39; luggage is stowed at the front of the car, where there is room for two trolleys or a golf bag.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="/files/Audi-Nanuk_quattro_Concept_2013_800x600_AXE_SA_06.jpg" style="width: 630px; height: 473px;" /></p> <p> <strong>Systematically driver-oriented: the interior</strong></p> <p> The interior of the Audi nanuk quattro concept has been reduced to the essentials. The architecture revolves around the instrument cluster. A carbon island accentuates the cockpit and provides for a clear driver focus. The instrument panel seems to float and emphasizes the horizontal lines and the width of the car. It is supported by aluminum stirrups at the center console, which have soft pads as leg rests. Besides numerous storage compartments, there is also a holder made of a soft material in the scissor doors.</p> <p> All control elements, including the controls for the electronically controlled air suspension, the touchwheel for navigation and multimedia functions and the turn signals, are concentrated on the center tunnel console and the steering wheel. The seats, with folding backs, pronounced side bolsters and integrated head restraints, are power-adjustable. A mobile phone can be charged inductively in the Audi phone box.</p> <p> Rather than physical dials and needles, the show car has a freely programmable instrument cluster. The driver can call up a variety of displays and information as desired. Two small monitors in the area of the A-pillars serve as digital exterior mirrors and display the images from the cameras on the doors. The same function is provided by the center display mounted on the headlining, which replaces the rearview mirror.</p> <p> Dark aluminum shines at the front of the instrument panel, whose surface as well as the seats, arm rests and door panels is covered in fine mineral gray leather. The third characteristic material in the interior of the Audi nanuk quattro concept is CFRP.</p> <p> [Via <a href="http://www.netcarshow.com/audi/2013-nanuk_quattro_concept/">netcarshow.com</a>]</p> View article online]]>